In computer networking, protocols are used which works in a structured manner. So, for understanding the whole process of transmission of data some models are developed, one of which is the TCP-IP Protocol. We at quesans going to describe in detail about the TCP-IP Protocol.

The TCP-IP Protocol is also known as the Internet Suite or DoD Model was developed before ten years the OSI model. The Internet Protocol Suite is unique in that it is made up of non-proprietary protocol. This means that they do not belong to an individual or any company and that the technology is available to everyone who wishes to use it. Hence, the Internet Protocol Suite is supported by the widest variety of network vendors.

The TCP-IP Protocol consists of five TCP IP layers:

  1. Application layer
  2. Host -to- Host layer or Transport layer
  3. Internet layer or Network layer
  4. Data-link layer
  5. Physical layer
what is tcp-ip protocol? layers in tcp/ip model
The layers of TCP-IP model and protocols used within the layers

Physical layer in TCP-IP Protocol:

The Physical layer is the lower layer of the TCP-IP Protocol. The physical layer specifies the physical features of the network’s hardware. The physical network layer, for example, provides the physical properties of the communications channels. TCP-IP’s physical layer describes hardware specifications such as IEEE 802.3, which specifies Ethernet network media, and RS-232, which specifies standard pin connectors.

Data-link layer in TCP-IP Protocol :

The data-link layer is the second layer in the TCP-IP Protocol. The data-link layer indicates the packet’s network protocol type. Error control and framing are also provided by the data-link layer. Examples of the data-link layers are Ethernet IEEE 802.2 framing and Point-to-Point (PPP) framing.

The data link layer provides for the transfer of data frames between the hosts connected by the physical link. The protocols of the data link layer respond to service requests from the network layer and perform their function by giving service requests to the physical layer.

The transfer of data can be reliable or unreliable, many data link layer protocols do not have successful frame reception and acceptance, and some data link layer protocols may not even perform any rechecks for transmission errors. In those cases, the higher-level protocol should provide flow control, error checking, acknowledgment, and retransmission.

Internet layer or Network layer in TCP-IP Protocol:

The Internet layer or IP Layers is the third layer of the TCP-IP Protocol. The Internet layer is compared to the Network layer in Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, and the IP layers is often called as Network layer. The main function of the Internet layer or IP Layers is to send the packets from client to server in a network, and they are irrespective of the routes they take to arrive at the destination host. The protocols at this layer include Internet Protocol (IP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).

Internet Protocol or IP Layers in Network Layer:

The internet protocol or IP Layers is the primary protocol used at the Internet layer. The internet protocol has two versions: IPv4 and IPv6. Both the versions had their standards on which they work. The IP layers use three types of addresses for network addressing. These are as follows:

  • Physical or Hardware addresses are used by the data link and physical layers. Physical addresses are usually hard-coded into the network cards with each device.
  • IP addresses provide logical node IDs. IP addresses are unique addresses assigned by an administrator according to certain guidelines. They are written in four-part dotted-decimal notation. For example, 122.143.141.11
  • Logical node names are easier to remember than an IP address. For example, www.quesans.com.

Host-to-Host layer or Transport layer in TCP-IP Model:

The Transport layer is the fourth layer of the TCP-IP Protocol. The transport layer establishes communication through connection-oriented sessions and connectionless broadcasts. It is used to deliver the data from one end to another end and it provides a point-to-point connection, that why it is also called as Host-to-Host layer. At the Transport layer, TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) are used.

TCP: TCP is a connection-oriented protocol, which establishes and maintains the connection until the messages to be exchanged by the application program at each end have been exchanged completely.

UDP: UDP is a connectionless protocol that works at the transport layer. The UDP transports datagrams but does not provide acknowledgment to their receipt. UDP provides no flow control or acknowledgments for receiving packets. If UDP detects some error while transmitting a datagram, it drops the datagram and does not inform about the dropped packet to the sender. UDP is faster than TCP.

Application layer in TCP-IP Protocol:

The Application layer is the fifth and last layer of the TCP-IP Protocol. The application layer is responsible for application-level access to TCP-IP networking services. The application layer includes Domain Name System (DNS), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Telnet, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). The TCP-IP implementation in Microsoft, application layer protocols interacts with transport layer protocol by using either Windows Sockets or NetBIOS over TCP-IP (NetBT).

These are the five TCP-IP layers of protocols on which the transmitting and receiving of data occurred in the TCP-IP Protocol.

Referece- wiki


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